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Sexual orientation change efforts SOCE are methods used in attempts to change the sexual orientation of homosexual and bisexual people to heterosexuality.

According to the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation, "there are no studies of Gay Tablet Tube scientific rigor to conclude whether or not such methods work to change sexual orientation.

The longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences, and the health and mental health professions Gay Tablet Tube that homosexuality and bisexuality are per se normal and positive variations of human sexual orientation.

There is a large body of research evidence that indicates that being gay, lesbian or bisexual is compatible with normal mental health and social adjustment. Indeed, such interventions are ethically suspect because they can be harmful to the psychological well-being of those who attempt them; clinical observations and self-reports indicate Gay Tablet Tube many individuals who unsuccessfully attempt to change their sexual orientation experience considerable psychological distress.

For these reasons, no major mental health professional organization has sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public about treatments that purport to change sexual orientation.

SOCE have been controversial due to tensions between the values held by some right-wing faith-based organizations, on the one hand, and those held by LGBT rights organizations, human rights and civil rights organizations, and other faith-based organizations, as well as professional and scientific organizations, on the other. Some individuals and groups have, contrary to global scientific research and consensus, promoted the idea of homosexuality as symptomatic of developmental defects or spiritual and moral failings and have argued that SOCE, including psychotherapy and religious efforts, could alter homosexual feelings and behaviors.

Medical attempts to change homosexuality included surgical treatments such as hysterectomy[11] ovariectomy[12] clitoridectomy[11] castration[13] [14] vasectomy[15] pudic nerve surgery, [16] and lobotomy.

Richard von Krafft-Ebing was a German-Austrian psychiatrist and one of the founders of scientific sexology. His first systematic work on sexual pathology was published in in a German psychiatric journal.

His influential work, Psychopathia Sexualis was published in Numerous expanded German editions followed, and it was widely translated. Krafft-Ebing became a proponent of the sickness model of homosexuality. Krafft-Ebing believed that hypnosis was therefore the "only means of salvation" [37] in most cases. He stated that he knew of only a single case in which self-hypnosis had proven successful, and that hypnotic suggestion by another person was usually necessary to change homosexuality.

Krafft-Ebing wrote about this method that " He rejected castration as a cure for Gay Tablet Tube, and the internment of gay people in asylums, except in cases involving sex crimes.

Krafft-Ebing cautioned that the success or failure of treatments for homosexuality proved nothing about its causes.

He defended the right of patients to receive such treatment. Krafft-Ebing criticised several objections to medical treatment of homosexuality, including the charges that it was ineffective and that it gave an opportunity "to tainted individuals to propagate their perversions".

In the last two decades of the 19th century, a different view began to predominate in medical and psychiatric circles, judging such behavior as indicative of a type of person with a defined and relatively stable sexual orientation. In the late 19th and 20th centuries, pathological models of homosexuality Gay Tablet Tube standard.

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